Question: What Are The 4 Theories Of Deviance?

What are the 5 theories of deviance?

According to Merton, there are five types of deviance based upon these criteria: conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreatism and rebellion.

Structural functionalism argues that deviant behavior plays an active, constructive role in society by ultimately helping cohere different populations within a society..

What is Merton’s theory of deviance?

Argues that crime is a result of people being socialised into expecting success but not achieving this success due to limited opportunities. Strain Theory was first developed by Robert Merton in the 1940s to explain the rising crime rates experienced in the USA at that time. …

What is Becker’s Labelling theory?

Howard Becker (1963): his key statement about labelling is: “Deviancy is not a quality of the act a person commits, but rather a consequence of the application by others of rules and sanctions to an ‘offender’. Deviant behaviour is behaviour that people so label.”

What are the four theories of crime?

This means considering four basic theories: Rational Choice, Sociological Positivism, Biological Positivism and Psychological Positivism. The theories rely on logic to explain why a person commits a crime and whether the criminal act is the result of a rational decision, internal predisposition or external aspects.

What are the 4 functions of deviance?

A pioneering sociologist Emile Durkheim argued that deviance is not abnormal, but actually serves four important social functions: 1) Deviance clarifies our collective cultural values; 2) Responding to Deviance defines our collective morality; 3) Responding to deviance unifies society; 4) Deviance promotes social …

What is an example of deviance?

Examples of formal deviance include robbery, theft, rape, murder, and assault. Informal deviance refers to violations of informal social norms, which are norms that have not been codified into law. … Cultural norms are relative, which makes deviant behavior relative as well.

What is an example of primary deviance?

Her mother brought her back to the store to confess, and she never took anything from a store again. This incident of Susan taking a candy bar is known as primary deviance. Deviance is any kind of behavior that veers away from social norms and what is taught.

Who is considered deviant?

The word deviance connotes odd or unacceptable behavior, but in the sociological sense of the word, deviance is simply any violation of society’s norms. Deviance can range from something minor, such as a traffic violation, to something major, such as murder.

What are the different types of labeling theories?

Key concepts: primary and secondary deviance.Theoretical contributions. Link’s modified labeling theory. Braithwaite’s reintegrative shaming theory. Matsueda and Heimer’s differential social control theory.Criticisms of labeling theory.

Who made Labelling theory?

Howard S. BeckerBy the same logic, positive labelling by society can influence individuals to exhibit positive behaviour. The labelling theory was developed and popularised by American sociologist Howard S. Becker in his 1963 book Outsiders.

What are the 3 theories of deviance?

Three broad sociological classes exist that describe deviant behavior, namely, structural functionalism, symbolic interaction and conflict theory.

What is the labeling theory of deviance?

Labeling theory holds that deviance is not inherent in an act, but instead focuses on the tendency of majorities to negatively label minorities or those seen as deviant from standard cultural norms. … Labeling theory was developed by sociologists during the 1960s.

What causes deviance?

Walter Rackless divided the causal theories of deviance into three categories: ”biological and constitutional, which identify causes such as biological heredity and mental disorders”, ”psychogenic, which mention faulty family relationships in early childhood as the main deviant factor” and ”sociological theories, which …

What is the function of deviance?

Deviance has several functions: (a) it clarifies norms and increases conformity, (b) it strengthens social bonds among the people reacting to the deviant, and (c) it can help lead to positive social change. Social ecology. Certain social and physical characteristics of urban neighborhoods contribute to high crime rates …

Who offered a functionalist theory of deviance?

Émile DurkheimÉmile Durkheim: Durkheim formally established the academic discipline and, with Karl Marx and Max Weber, is commonly cited as the principal architect of modern social science and father of sociology. For the structural functionalist, deviance serves two primary roles in creating social stability.